The relay starts operating, and its send the tripping command to the circuit breaker. Therefore a margin of 20% is given for the accuracy of measurement and infeed / outfeed effect. DISTANCE PROTECTION CALCULATION: ZONE SETTINGS: Zone – 1 = 80% of Protected Line Zone – 1B = 100% of Protected Line Zone – 2 = 100% of Protected Line + 20% of Adjacent Shortest Line Zone – 3 = 100% of Protected Line + 150% of Adjacent Longest Line Zone – 4 = 200% of Protected Line CALCULATIONS: 1. ... SEL-311C Distance Protection Settings Distance Zone Non-Homogeneous Correction Angle If we clear the concept for these relays first then understanding the Numerical Relay settings becomes easy. peer reviewed journal ijera com. This technical report refers to the electrical protection of all 132kV switchgear. This impedance between the relay and the fault depends on the electrical distance between them. Relay Settings Calculations. Peer Reviewed Journal IJERA com. In most of text books Zone 2 setting of distance relay and by author is recommended 120% of line impedance. minimum ijser. II. AL represents the reach of instantaneous Zone 1 protection, set to cover 80% to 85% of the protected line. 2.-1 Supervision of currents and voltages measured. Assume that the maximum load at the relay site is 120MVA, and select a CT ratio accordingly. Hence, it is called as an Under-reaching  Element. (PDF) PMU based adaptive zone settings of distance relays for … Download UpdateStar UpdateStar com. of distance relay and zone protection scheme using Matlab/Simulink package. contents. Hence, it cannot model infeed or outfeed properly. In this study, the focus is on the phase distance elements and mho settings of different zones. Zone-1 provides fastest protection because there is no intentional time delay associated with it. Ratio on Zone 1 Distance Relay Reach 56thMinnesota Power Systems Conference November 3, 2020 Pratap G. Mysore, P.E., Pratap Consulting Services, LLC & John U. Berzins P.E., Xcel Energy, MN. Peer Reviewed Journal IJERA com. All Posts, Case study, Most Download, Products. In other words, if a fault is close to bus, one cannot ascertain if it is on the primary line, bus or on back up line. This means that Z2 of the relay R1 has to be further slowed down. See the picture below. If the fault is on line BC (and in Z2 of R3), relay R3 should get the first opportunity to clear the fault. modern distance relay hasseveral elements which provide many protection functions in a single package. A B C Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 1 Zone 2 • Slowest clearance on any line is Zone 2 time. Therefore, percentage under reach can be defined as Fig. and\rWhy we go for zone 4? Vector AB represents the impedance in front of the relay between the relaying point A and the end of line AB. Zone-1 reach settings for transmission line distance relays to prevent overreach resulting from coupling capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT) transients is studied on [14]. As Zone-2 protection already have a time delay, due to overlapping we need to further introduce some time delay which will degrade the performance of Relay for Zone-2. If so with 120% line … we respect your privacy and take protecting it seriously. \rYou can able to fine answer for this all question.\rAnd also I have show some demo of fault and how the relay will respond for the fault , \rHere I have touched carrier send and receive also not deeply . Zones of Protection. One question has asked from the same concept in gate 2002 ee paper. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Open Access PMU based adaptive zone settings of distance relays for protection of multi-terminal transmission lines Balimidi Mallikarjuna1, Pudi Shanmukesh1, Dwivedi Anmol1, Maddikara Jaya Bharata Reddy1* and Dusmanta Kumar Mohanta2 Abstract This paper proposes Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) based adaptive zone settings of distance relays (PAZSD) Operating Characteristic of an Impedance Relay Hence, a conscious effort is made to avoid overlaps of Z2 of relay R1 and R3. Must allow for this underreach when setting Zone 2 elements to ensure correct scheme operation Teed Feeders - No/Weak Infeed at One Terminal A C B No infeed from terminal B. CTs and PTs have limited accuracy. Overreaching distance zones are used in both step-distance and pilot schemes. In the same manner, Setting for Zone-2 = (150% of 61) × CT/PT ratio = 1.5×61×0.28 = 25.62 ohm Which means if the … During fault, a CT may partially or complete saturate. Setting Zone-2 of R1 to maximum of 150% of primary line impedance or primary line impedance plus 50% of smallest line impedance usually works out good compromise without getting into Z2 overlap problem. Why not more than 150%? See you in some other Post. Disadvantages of Impedance Char. The time of operation of such protection is a function of the ratio of voltage and current, i.e., impedance. • Zone 3 to provide backup to remote lines, time delayed to grade with Zone 2. 3 All mho distance functions require voltage in order to operate. peer reviewed journal ijera com. Time Stepped Distance Settings . Zone-2 setting in Distance Relay is kept at 150 % to avoid Overlap Problem. Distance and overcurrent elements are set more sensitive that are less selective and vice versa. Share: Rate: Previous Master Trip Relay (86) Concept in Power System Explained in Detail. 1a. Testing And Commissioning Guideline For Numerical Distance … – Construction and Working Principle, Binary Coded Decimal or BCD Number Explained, What is UPS? PSM and TMS settings that is Plug Setting Multiplier and Time Multiplier Setting are the settings of a relay used to specify its tripping limits. 90 % of zone 1, 110 % of zone 1, 90 % of zone 2,…). In the step-distance scheme, they are programmed with increasing time delays in direct proportion to the remote station zones they overreach. To avoid the Loss of Discrimination with the Zone 1 Protection of the following Line Section, Zone I Distance is set at 80 to 90 % of the Line and not 100%. The Distance Protection module allows the user to enter distance protection relays with their settings or characteristics, get all voltage, current, and impedance values (primary or secondary) seen by a relay due to a short circuit, check the relay settings, set the relay automatically or manually, enter the tripping schedules, and activate a fault clearing procedure. Under such a condition, the distance relay may maloperate due to its inherent zone settings. Generators are tripped unintentionally when it experiences pole slipping phenomena due to transmission disturbances. Peer Reviewed Journal IJERA com Peer Reviewed Journal IJERA Com April 29th, 2018 - International Journal Of Engineering Research And Applications IJERA Is … See the picture below. Zone 1 does not cover the entire length of the primary line because it is difficult to distinguish between faults which are close to bus B like fault at F1, F2, F3 and F4. Shot test, Search test, and Check test In a Shot test, single test points are added to a test point table and are automatically processed. The System Nominal Voltage Is 138 KV And The Positive Sequence Impedances For The Various Elements Are Given In The Figure 3. MODEL SETTING CALCULATION DOCUMENT FOR A TYPICAL IED USED FOR TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION . Zone-2 setting in Distance Relay is kept at 150 % to avoid, What is IGBT? Finally, the approaches proposed in [7–9], based on probability These advantages led to fast and wide-spread adoption of distance for protection of highrelays- voltage networks. DISTANCE PROTECTION BASICS A. Peer Reviewed Journal IJERA com. Hence schemes reliant on Zone 1 operation would not work (Z1 ext, PUR) Teed Feeders - Problems (1) A C B Relay at terminal B sees a reverse fault. Phase Distance Relay – Zone 2The zone 2 reach is set to protect the remainder of the line left unprotected by the zone 1 setting and provide an adequate margin. distance relays across the system, are great advantages of distance protection. Because of infeed and outfeed effect the, the Relay may sense fault in 100% length of line even though the location of fault is actually not in 100% of line. Zone-2 setting of distance relays using user defined time-inverse over current relay charactieristics Abstract: Distance relays are set in coordination with the over current relays for protection of sub-transmission lines. As clear from the picture above, if the reach of Zone-2 of a relay R1 is extended too much, then it can overlap with the Zone … download updatestar updatestar com. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "adbd4b39691ab521f3655bf3bc88f0b8" );document.getElementById("gb4c2c8240").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox. Under such a situation, there exists following conflict. Typically, it is set to cover 80% of the line length. In this paper, PMU based adaptive zone settings of distance relays (PAZSD) methodology has been proposed to improve the performance and the reliability of distance protection by adjusting zone settings adaptively. May 23, 2019 November 26, 2020. Five Zones for Distance Protection Ricardo Abboud, Jordan Bell, and Brian Smyth Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. If the fault reached beyond the protective zone, the contacts of the relay remain unclosed. Distance protection relay is the name given to the protection, whose action depends on the distance of the feeding point to the fault. Protection Engineer. Distances relay Zone Setting and Distance Relay Zone Operating system has been explain from basic\rHere I have explain step by step Distance protection from Basic Why we go for zone?\rHow much percentage we have to keep for each zone?\rWhat is the best timing for each zone?\rWhy we go for zone2?\rWhy we go for zone3 ? With the TW21 element we will , gain more Zone 1 coverage, at faster speeds. Thanks a lot…. for the actual distance protection relay. Assume That The Maximum Load At The Relay Site Is 120MVA, And Select A CT Ratio Accordingly. Read Free Distance Relay Setting Calculation Guide Distance Relay Setting Calculation Guide Yeah, reviewing a books distance relay setting calculation guide could amass your near connections listings. A distance relay measures the voltage (V) and current (I) … Setting | distance relay zone settings protection functions in a single package starts operating, and a. Will pick up in each relay if the fault depends on the transmission.! 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